Recent Bronze Age

Areas described in the text

During the Recent Bronze Age (from 13th to 12th century BC), the site was reorganized and the fortifications rebuilt, incorporating the ruins of the oldest walls and maintaining the previous track. A new gate is built on an angle slightly deviating from the Middle Bronze Age path. The building technique adopted involved a significant reduction in the use of timber, and is attested for the first time the extensive use of blocks of local limestone, assembled in ordered courses. Another main difference with the previous plan of the walls is in the absence of minor defensive posterns.

Recent Bronze Age Fortifications

The investigations have also made it possible to highlight large sections of the front inside of the fortifications and to recognize, as in the Middle Bronze Age, several phases of life and traces of destruction by fire. The investigations conducted in recent years have shown, in particular, the high complexity and monumentality of the entire settlement plan, characterized by roadways, remains of wooden structures of large dimensions, areas destined for specialized productions, cultic activities etc.. Occupation levels and deposit layers attributable to the Recent Bronze Age have yielded an extraordinary collection of archaeological evidence, including abundant local impasto pottery, significant percentages of Aegean pottery (Late Helladic IIIB-IIIC early), as well as numerous plants and animals (the latter relevant to the remains of food as well as objects and tools of animal derived materials).


Aegean-type deep bowls from Area IX

Among the imported ceramics, we recognize both fine open forms for drinking and eating, as well as large wares for transport and storage of food. The discovery of ceramic classes locally produced and inspired by Aegean prototypes (gray ceramic, dolia, Italo-Mycenaean pottery) is also interesting. Also worth attention is the presence of other rare artifacts in amber, metal and stone, probably from abroad: for example, a knife tine similar to the 'Baierdorf' type, a pair of pins with spherical 'Franzine' type heads and a lenticular steatite red seal. The peak recorded in the Recent Bronze Age pottery imports, local production of pottery of Aegean type, and the exceptional attestation of quality exotic materials document the role of nodal site Roca in wide-ranging contacts that connected the regions of Central Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean. These phenomena also suggest the possible habitation, temporary or permanent, of artisans and sailors of trans-Adriatic origin inside the settlement, suggesting that the relationship between local communities and foreign people went beyond commercial exchanges, but that one could expect more complex phenomena of interaction in political, cultural and religious spheres. Among the most significant contexts of this phase, we note a thick deposit that included local and imported drinking vessels in association with numerous skeletal remains, attributable especially to large quarter-animals (Bos taurus, Cervus elaphus etc.), all of which was sealed by a thick layer of crushed limestone. The contextual information recoveres has led us to hypothesize the connection of these finds with special ritual activities such as symposiums and animal sacrifices.

Deposition of a possible animal sacrifice

Middle Bronze Age Final Bronze Age